Tips for training
Congratulations on your training place! In the coming months you will go to vocational school, start your job and meet new people. We hope it will be an interesting and fun time for you. So that your training runs smoothly, you should look out for certain things. We’ll help you and as a union will represent your rights.
Well regulated – your training contract
Before you can start the training, you have to sign a written agreement with your training company. The training contract regulates how and under what conditions your training will be terminated. The contract must comply with the Vocational Training Act and other laws. The law states, for example, how many days minimum vacation you are entitled to and your maximum permissible daily and weekly working hours.
Checklist: What is written in the training contract?
- Training goal and process of the training
- Start and duration the training
- Location of the training
- Work Hours
- Trial period: 1-4 months; during the trial period, both parties may terminate the training immediately and without giving reasons.
- Training allowance and additional payments
- Vacation days per year: by law adults have at least 20 days, 24 days at a 6-day working week
- Conditions of termination
- Training plan as an annex
- Unit training plan: This states when and at which stations you will be spending time in your training company and what you will be learning there.
- Notes on collective agreements and company agreements
Well calculated- training grants
If a collective agreement applies in your training company, this also regulates how much money trainees receive. If there is no collective agreement, find out how high the wages are in other companies in your industry. Your training allowance should be about the same and must not fall below 20% of the collectively agreed remuneration that is standard for the industry. With each year of training, you have the right to a little more payment.
Your responsibilities in training
Of course, you have to actively participate in your training. Your superiors may give you instructions and you have to follow them, if it helps the training.
You write up what you learn and do in your training every week in your report book. You can do this during your training time. Your instructor should check and sign the reports. However, the report book is valid proof of training even without this signature. You will only be admitted to the exam if the report book is complete at the end of training.
Absences & sickness
When you are sick you cannot work. You need to tell your training company that you cannot come. From the third day of illness, you have to submit a medical certificate. However, your company may also require this from the first day of sickness. While you are sick, your salary will continue to be paid. On vocational school days, you must register sick at the vocational school and your company.
The vocational school is part of the training and thus compulsory. Your company gives you these days free to attend. The vocational school is credited to your work time. If school is cancelled, you must go to the company.
Your rights during training
During the training you naturally also have rights. Make sure that your training company grants you these. As a union, we support you so you also receive your rights in the case of dispute.
Your training company is obliged to provide you with a trainer. This person should be responsive to your questions and explain new tasks to you beforehand. If you are not learning anything or are just doing the same work as trained colleagues, you should seek advice. You are in training to learn!
You are learning something that you do not yet know how to do. Mistakes are part of the process. If you damage something, the company must pay for it. You do not have to pay for it. You also have a right to be treated with respect. No one may yell at you or punish you.
Training master plan
Check out your training plan carefully. It regulates what contents you are supposed to learn in each year of training. You have a right to a full education. If your training company is unable to provide you with all the content itself, then it must arrange for you to learn certain skills outside the company.
No activities that do not constitute training
Everyone makes coffee for a meeting sometime. If these tasks are only ever done by you, or you have to run private errands for your boss, then something is wrong. Activities that are not part of your education are not covered by your contract. Get advice from your trade union or speak to your works council or your youth delegation (JAV) about this.
You have to wear protective clothing for dangerous work, which your employer must provide. In the OSH Act further protective measures are regulated, which should be strictly adhered to in your company.
- Generally, no hazardous activities may be assigned to apprentices under 18 years of age.
- You are normally only allowed to work eight hours a day. Those who are legally of age are allowed to work for up to ten hours in exceptional cases. This overtime must be compensated within the following weeks.
- If you work more than six hours a day, you have the right to a 30-minute break. Minors have the right to an hour.
- On Sundays you can only work in certain sectors, in exceptional cases, and no more than 15 Sundays a year. For each working Sunday you are entitled to a day off.
In the vocational school you will learn more about the laws and regulations of working life. If you have questions or find that your rights are being ignored, you can contact your works, youth and trainee delegation (JAV), or your union.
Protection from harassment and bullying
You have a right not to be insulted or sexually harassed. In addition, nobody may be physically violent towards you.
If you often have to put up with hostility, or regular taunts, you should do something about it. Your trainer at work can help you, or the works council or youth delegation. Your teachers at vocational school or your local union contact can also help and advise and you.
Funding during training
Even during vocational training you have to live on something. Below we provide you with an overview of how you can get financing.
In a dual training you are entitled to payment. The amount varies depending on the industry and company.
As a rule, training allowances are higher if the company is bound by a collective agreement. Collective agreements are negotiated between unions and individual employers or even for an entire industry. You can find he agreed training pay for your industry on www.tarifvertrag.de
For further information on collective agreements and agreements in your place of work, consult your works counsel, your youth delegation or the relevant trade union.
Depending on how much pay you receive, you may be subject to taxes and deductions for social security.
Vocational training allowance
If you do not live with your parents during your dual training and your training allowance is not enough to live on, under certain conditions you may apply for a supplementary training allowance (BAB). Generally, recognized refugees and asylum-seekers are entitled to a vocational training allowance. The application must be submitted before the 12/31/18. With the approval of the training allowance, although you will not receive benefits under the Asylum Seekers Benefits Act you may, however, be eligible for a grant towards your apartment rent (à housing benefit). You apply for a training grant at the Employment Agency. The maximum rate is 572 euros per month. Your adviser at the Employment Agency will support you in making the application.
Your parents may have to pay for your maintenance. Your case advisor at the Employment Agency will tell you how much support you have a legal right to.
Under certain circumstances, you can apply for housing benefit at your local city hall or town council while you are in training. This is the case if you do not get a vocational training grant, for example because you have already completed training. Housing benefit is a grant for your rent and is authorized for one year. With an income of 600 euros and a rent of 250 euros per month, for example, the benefit is about 50 euros.
If you need assistance with an application, contact a local citizen’s advice bureau or a youth migration service.
Works council and JAV
In workplaces with at least five workers, the employees have the right to set up a works council. This represents the workers’ interests to the management. The works council is democratically elected and may influence company decisions.
If there is a works council, a youth delegation (JAV) can also be elected. To this end, there must be at least five underage workers or trainees under 26 years of age. The JAV represents the interests of younger workers to the company. It monitors whether the employer is sticking to the applicable laws and regulations for training. It can also apply for measures that contribute to the integration of young people and students of foreign origin. If you do tasks that are not in your training plan or you are mistreated, you can inquire at your JAV.